Support Documentation

Support Documentation

Research articles and outcome studies can go a long way in educating staff on prosthetic products and in supporting coding submissions. Concentrating our own studies on elevated vacuum suspension, WillowWood’s research team has published prosthetic journal articles, presented at national trade shows, and served on industry expert panels at national and regional trade shows.

For your convenience, an extensive bibliography of articles is provided for elevated vacuum suspension, CAD/CAM and liners.


Liner References

Wernke, Matthew M. PhD; Schroeder, Ryan M. BS; Kelley, Christopher T. MS; Denune, Jeffrey A. CP; Colvin, James M. MS. SmartTemp Prosthetic Liner Significantly Reduces Residual Limb Temperature and Perspiration. Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics. 2015; 27(4): 134-139.

Wernke M, Kelley C, Haynes M, Gerschutz M, Colvin J. Management of Skin Temperature and Perspiration Using a Prosthetic Liner Incorporating Phase Change Material. OrthoBode. Nr.3/2014. 

Beil TL, Street GM. Comparison of interface pressures with pin and suction suspension systems. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2004;41(6A):821-828.

Denune, J. Managing Difficult Limb Shapes with Custom Liners. The Academy Today, March 2006: A8-9.


CAD/CAM References

Dowell, J., Knapp, D. Fundementals of Digitization and Shape Capture. The Academy Today, Summer 2017: 7-9.

Dowell, J. CAD/CAM applications for the AFO. The Academy Today, Sept 2008: A12-13.

Dowell, J. Increasing efficiency, repeatability, and accuracy in prosthetics and orthotics through the use of CAD. The Academy Today, April 2007: A12-13.

Dowell, J. Pushing the clinical envelope with CAD/CAM. The Academy Today, Oct 2009: A10-11.


Socket Materials & Strength References

Gerschutz MJ, Haynes ML, Nixon D, Colvin JM. Strength evaluation of prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49(3):405–26.

Gerschutz MJ, Haynes ML, Colvin JM, and Nixon D. Tensile strength and impact resistance properties of materials used in prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 2011;48(8):987-1004.


Elevated Vacuum References

  1. Beil TL, Street GM, Covey SJ. Interface pressures during ambulation using suction and vacuum assisted prosthetic sockets. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2002;39:693-700.
  2. Board WJ, Street GM, Caspers C. A comparison of trans-tibial amputee suction & vacuum socket conditions. Prosthetics & Orthotics International. 2001;25(3):202-209.
  3. Brunelli S, Averna T, Delusso S, Traballesi M. Vacuum assisted socket system in trans-tibial amputees: Clinical report. Orthopadie-Technik Quarterly. 2009;2-7.
  4. Fairley M. ‘Hanging Tight’: Elevated vacuum suspension systems step forward. The O&P Edge, Mar 2008. Accessed at
  5. Gerschutz MJ, Denune JA, Colvin JM, and Schober G. Elevated vacuum suspension influence on lower limb amputee’s residual limb volume at different vacuum pressure settings. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics. 2010;22(4):252-256. doi: 10.1097/JPO.0b013e3181f903df
  6. Gerschutz MJ, Haynes ML, Colvin JM, Nixon D, Denune JA, and Schober G. A vacuum suspension measurement tool for use in prosthetic research and clinical outcomes: Validation and analysis of vacuum pressure in a prosthetic socket. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics. 2010;22(3):172-176. doi: 10.1097/JPO.0b013e3181e8feaa
  7. Goswami J, Lynn R, Street GM, Harlander M. Walking in a vacuum assisted socket shifts the stump fluid balance. Prosthetics & Orthotics International. 2003;23:107-113.
  8. Patterson S. Experiences with Negative-Pressure Socket Design. The Academy Today, Jun 2007:A7-9. Accessed at
  9. Stevens P, Liston J. Beyond suspension: using elevated vacuum to enhance the prosthetic connection. Advance Online Editions for Directors in Rehabilitation 2007;16:29.
  10. Street, GM: Vacuum suspension and its effects on the limb. Orthopadie-Technik Quarterly. 2007;2-4.
  11. Swiggum H. The effects of vacuum assisted socket environment on proprioception in transtibial amputations. Best of the Resident Papers, American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists: Washington DC. 2004.
  12. Ferraro C. Outcomes study of transtibial amputees using elevated vacuum suspension in comparison with pin suspension. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthorics. 2011;23(2):78-81.

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